"Facility design takes into account caregiver-animal safety and ease of maintaining a positive relationship." Standards For Rhinoceros, Hippopotamus and Tapir Sanctuaries. 2013. Global Federation of Animal Sanctuaries
A baby orangutan looks for food in a PVC pipe. Feeding the primates through these tubes is meant to encourage natural foraging behavior.
"Objects that encourage inspection and manipulation and promote species-specific behavior. Examples include boxes, balls, bones, barrels, drums and rawhide." Standards For Felid Sanctuaries. 2013. Global Federation of Animal Sanctuaries
"Enclosures are equipped in accordance with the needs of the elephants with appropriate substrate, vegetation, bedding and other enrichment materials designed to aid and encourage normal behavior patterns and minimize any abnormal behavior." Standards For Elephant Sanctuaries. 2015. Global Federation of Animal Sanctuaries
"Canids are able to enjoy lives that are as close as possible to that of their wild counterparts as regards stimulation and interest. This is achieved by... appropriate housing and enclosure design, environmental enrichment programs, positive reinforcement training programs and a balanced diet to meet nutritional requirements." Standards For Canid Sanctuaries. 2013. Global Federation of Animal Sanctuaries
Lioness and target audience.
"Animals should be displayed, whenever possible, in exhibits replicating their wild habitat." Lion Care Manual. Association of Zoos and Aquariums.
A seal lies at the bottom of its tank at the zoo.
"An animal can be said to be bored when it has to adapt to its environment in an abnormal way, indicative of understimulation, in order to maintain its sense of selfhood. Boredom can be regarded as a form of distress." Wemelsfelder, F. (1984). Animal boredom: Is a scientific study of the subjective experiences of animals possible?. In M.W. Fox & L.D. Mickley (Eds.), Advances in animal welfare science 1984/85 (pp. 115-154). Washington, DC: The Humane Society of the United States.
"Captive gorillas... are both displaced from their natural diet and lifestyle and are thus at risk for specific diseases... Cardiac arrest associated with a poor diet and lack of exercise in captivity has been cited as a significant cause of adult gorilla deaths in zoos." Management of Gorillas in Captivity, Gorilla Species Survival Plan & Atlanta/Fulton County Zoo, Inc.
"Why exhibit Grevy’s zebras? Feature one of Africa’s most iconic, recognizable, and photogenic animals — dynamic herds are a bonanza for developing lasting guest experiences!" From a brochure published by the AZA Equid Taxon Advisory Groups.